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Maxaad Ka Ogtahay Dal Keliya Dhisnaa Muddo Saddex Sano Ah

Bolivia

Waxaa loo aqoonsaday “ballaarinti taariikhiga ahayd ee dalka qaniga ah ee Peru”, sida sanakdii 1961 laga soo xigtay taariikh yahanka u dhashay Chile ee Hernán Ramírez Necochea.

Waa ” Isu geynta Peru-Bolivian”, oo ahaa mashruuc rajo badan lahaa oo mideeyay jamhuuriyadaha Peru iyo Bolivia. Inkastoo tani ay socotay muddo gaaban.

Xaqiiqdii, tan iyo markii la aasaasay, sanadkii 1836, waxay wajahday xoogag gudaha iyo dibadda ah oo gadaal ka riixayay burburinteeda, taas oo ugu dambeyn dhacday sanadkii 1839.

Sidee ayay ku timid fekradda isku darka labada dal maxaase si dhaqso ah loogu guul darreystay?

Waxa ka dhaxeeya ee guud

Sanadihii 1830-meeyadii —ama xitaa kahor—, mashruuca lagu mideynayo Peru iyo Bolivia “wuxuu ahaa taariikhda,” ayuu BBC Mundo u sheegay taariikh yahanka u dhashay Bolivia ee Marilú Soux.

Dadka reer Peruvia iyo Bolivia ee doonayay in la isku daro labada dal ayaa u aaneeyay sababo la xiriira dhulka, taariikhda iyo dhaqaalaha oo soo jirtay boqollaal sano, sida uu Jorge Basadre, oo ah taariikh yahan qarnigii 20-aad caan ahaa oo u dhashay Peru “Historia ku xusay buuggiida de la la Republic of Peru, 1822-1933 “.

Xilliyadii Xisbaaniyiinta, qowmiyadaha Quechua iyo Aymara ethnic ayaa wadaagi jiray Altiplano – oo ah gobol ku yaalla meel u dhow Harada Titicaca – muddo qarniyo ah, halka ilbaxnimada Inca iyo Tiahuanaco ay saameyn ku yeelatay labada dal.

  • Peru

Arimaha dhanka dhaqaalaha, dekadda loogu jecel yahay ee La Paz (oo hadda ah caasimadda Bolivia) waxay ahayd Arica, oo xilligaas ay Peru lahayd.

Waxaa intaa dheer, gobollada koofureed ee Peru waxay xiriir ganacsi oo toos ah la lahaayeen Bolivia, xitaa mid ka weyn kii ay la lahaayeen waqooyiga Peru, sida uu sheegay Basadre.

Arrimahaas iyo kuwo kale ayaa ka qeyb qaatay midowga Peruvian-Bolivian.

Janaraal Andrés de Santa Cruz – madaxweynihii Golaha Maamulka Peru intii u dhaxeysay sanadihii 1826 iyo 1827 kaddib dhicitaankii Viceroyalty, kaddibna noqday madaxweynihii Bolivia (1829-1839) – ayaa sidoo kale qaba arrintan.

Aasaasitaankii iyo howlgalkii isu geynta labada dal

Sanadkii 1835, siyaasadda Peru waxay ku jirtay xasarad.

Madaxweynihii markaas, Luis José de Orbegoso, ayaa wajahay kacdoon xooggan oo ka dhan ah dowladdiisa kaas oo uga imaanayay xeebta iyo koofurta dalkas.

Felipe Santiago Salaverry ayaa awoodda xoog ugala wareegay Orbegoso.

Peru

XIGASHADA SAWIRKA,GETTY IMAGES

Isagoo dareemaya qalqal, ayaa Orbegoso wuxuu La Paz General Santa Cruz weydiistay caawinaad militari si dalka loo badbaadiyo.

Wuxuu Orbegoso taas beddelkeed siiyay Santa Cruz awoodihiisa madaxtinnimada Peru wuxuuna oggolaaday in baarlamaan laga dhiso waqooyiga iyo koofurta Peru si loo go’aansado suurtogalnimada in lala midoobo Bolivia.

Xilligaas, taageerayaasha in labada dla la isu geeyo iskuma aysan raacsaneyn gobolka hoggaanka qabanaya.

Sidaas darteed, soo jeedinta Santa Cruz waxay ahayd in Peru labo loo qeybiyo – gobolka Waqooyiga Peru iyo gobolka Koofurta Peru- isla markaana lagu daro Bolivia, sidaa darteed waxay noqonayaan “saddex gobol oo isku mid ah dhanka Peru-na kama jirayo sarreyn dhanka dhulka ah, balse markii la qeybinayay, arrin kale ayaa harsaneyd. inay noqdaan kuwo isku mid ah, “ayuu yiri taariikh yahanka u dhashay Peru ee Scarlett O’Phelan.

Kaddib markii uu ka oggolaaday Orbegoso, Santa Cruz wuxuu diray 5,000 oo ciidan Bolivianah, bishii February 1836, waxay awoodeen inay burburiyaan dhammaan mucaaradka.

“Markii Salaverry la burburiyay, Santa Cruz wuxuu ahaa milkiilaha Peru”, sida uu Basadre ku xusay buuggiisa “Taariikhda Jamhuuriyadda Peru.”

Bishii March sanadkaas, gobolka Koofurta Peru ayaa la sameeyay, bishii August, waxaa isna la sameeyay gobolka Waqooyiga Peru.

Labada gobol, marka loo geeyo Bolivia, waxay Santa Cruz u aqoonsadeen “Ilaaliyaha Weyn” ee Isutagga Peru-Bolivian.

Bishii October 1836, Santa Cruz ayaa saxiixay digreeto si rasmi ah loogu dhawaaqayo Isutagga.

Balse arrintan ma aysan sii jirin wax badan.

Sidee ayuu u shaqeeyay qorshaha isutagga dalalkan

Saddexda gobol ayaa isku raacay in midkoodba uu yeelan doono dowlad u gaar ah, balse ay u hoggaansami doonaan dowladda guud, oo mas’uul ka ahaan doonto howlaha diblomaasiyadda, militariga iyo dhaqaalaga Isutagga labada dal iyo doorashada madaxweyneyaasha gobollada.

Dowladda guud ayaa mas’uul ka ahaan lahayd ilaaliyaha Santa Cruz , muddo 10 sano ah isagoo xaq u lahaanaya in dib loo doorto.

“Santa Cruz wuxuu ka fekeray in caasimaddu ay noqoto halkii uu joogay,” ayuu Aljovín u sheegay BBC Mundo. “Waxay ahayd hab cajiib ah oo looga fogaanayo dacwadda magaalada caasimadda noqoneysa.”Peru

Arrimaha la xiriira ganacsiga badda, xafiis guud oo kastamka ah ayaa looga sameeyay dekadda Arica gobollada Koofurta Peru iyo Bolivia.

“Mashruuca Santa Cruz marka la eego waxaa muhiim ahayd in Bolivia ay mar kale hanato Arica, sida uu qabo taariikhyahanka reer Chile ee Gonzalo Serrano.

Balse shuruucda Isutagga dalalka ayaa waxaa diidmo ka keenay dadka gudaha iyo dalalka xudduudaha la lehba.

Diidmada isu geynta dalalka

Gudaha Bolivia, tusaale ahaan, halka “dadka la jiray Cruz waxay aaminsanaayeen in Bolivia ay leedahay dhulka sare” wayna taageereen isu tagga dalalka, waxaa jiray kuwo ka soo horjeeday “in Peru loo kala qeybiyay labo, sababtoo ah haddii ay noqoto dhanka go’aan gaaridda waxay noqon doontaa labo ka soo horjeeda hal, “ayuu yiri Soux.Peru

Dalka Peru fekradda isugeynta dalalka waxay caan ka ahayd gobolka Koofurta Peri. Balse dhanka waqooyiga waxaa soo baxay diidmo ka dhan ah sida ay wax u socdaan oo la dareemay billowgiii horeba.

Gobolka ayaa dareemay in sokortii uu u dhoofin jiray dalka Chile ay arrintaasi saameyn ku yeelatay isla markaana sida Koofurta Peru oo kale xiriir ulama uusan lahayn Bolivia.

Waxaa intaa dheer, waxaa laga cabsi qabay in Lima, caasimaddii Peru tan iyo boqortooyadii kuna taalla gobolka Waqooyiga Peru, ay lumiso muhiimadda ay dalkaasi ku lahad.

Isutagga dalalkan ayaa sidoo kale cadowtinnimo u qaaday kuwii raacsanaa dadkii xukunka ka tuuray Orbegoso.

Badankood waxay dibad-joog ku noqdeen Chile, sida uu sheegay Aljovín, waxayna sugayeen xilligii ay aargoosan lahaayeen.

Ninka lagu muransan yahay ee Santa Cruz

Balse isutagga dalalka oo keliya maaha waxa sababay dhibaatada. Santa Cruz ayaa sidoo kale laga keenay diidmo badan.

Peru

XIGASHADA SAWIRKA,GETTY IMAGES

Wuxuu ahaa wiilka aabbe Peru u dhashay, iyo hooyo Bolivia ka soo jeedday, wuxuu qabay haweeney ka so jeedday Cusco labada dalna madaxweyne ayuu ka ahaa.

“Wuxuu dareemay inuu hal lug kula jiray Peru tan kalena uu kula jiray Bolivia, sidaas darteed waxaa heysatay dhibaato weyn oo dhanka dhalashada ah. In la isku dheellitiro ayuu xal u arkay isu geynta dalalka. Waxaan aaminsanahay in isugeynta dalalkan ay si uun u xallisay dhibaatadiisii dhalashada,” ayuu yiri O’Phelan.

Balse tani waxaa ka dhalatay in “Santa Cruz uu nin Peruvia u janjeera ugu muuqday dadka Bolivia halka dadka reer Peru ay u arkayeen nin u badan dhanka Bolivia,” ayuu yiri Basadre, waxaana intaa dheer inay u arkayeen inay siiyeen dhammaan awoodda.

Balse durba waa laga qaadi doonaa.

Diidmo ka timid Chile iyo Argentina

Mashruuca ayaa waxaa diidmo ka keenay dalalka xudduudda la wadaaga ee Argentina iyo gaar ahaan Chile, oo muujisay inay tahay in meesha laga saaro isugeynta dalalka.

Wasiirkii Dagaalka Chile, Diego Portales, ayaa caddeeyay sida uu dalkiisa uga soo horjeedo isugeynta dalalka.

Portales ayaa dareemay in midowga Peru iyo Bolivia uu khatar ku yahay dalkiisa.PeruDiego Portales

“Fakradda ​​Portales waxay ahayd burburinta isugeynta dalalka kahor inta aysan dadka labada dal heshiin taas oo burburinta adkeyn karta.”

Sidaas darteed December 1836, Chile ayaa ku dhawaaqday dagaal ka dhan ah isugeynta dalalka, iyadoo sabab uga dhintay “inay qalqal gelinayaan jamhuuriyadaha Mareykanka” iyo “cabsi laga qabo in isutagga dalalkan ay qabsadaan Baasiifigga Mareykanka,” sida uu buuggiisa ku xusan Basadre.

Bishii May 1837, Argentina ayaa sidoo kale ku dhawaaqday dagaal.

Wax yar kaddib, bishii June 1837, Portales ayaa lagu dilay dagaal. Si kastaba, dalkiisa ayaa sii waday go’aanka looga soo horjeeday midowga Peruvian-Bolivian.

Soo celinta hadafka

Ujeeddadan waxaa taageerayay militariga Peru ee dibadjoogga ku ahaa Chile tan iyo kacdoonkii ka dhanka ahaa Orbegoso, “ee ka soo horjeeday Santa Cruz, oo ay u arkayeen ajnabi doonaya horumarinta mashruuciisa siyaasadeed,” sida uu Serrano u sheegay BBC Mundo.

Iyaga ahaan, inay aqbalaan dowladda Santa Cruz “waxay uga dhigneyd ka tanaasulka inay mar kale xukumaan Peru.”

Sidaas darteed dadka reer Chile qaarkood ma aysan dareemin inay la dagaallamayaan Peru, ee waxay aaminsanaayeen inay dalka ka xoreynayaan Santa Cruz, iyo inay axsaan ka sameynayaan,” ayuu intaas raaciyay Serrano.

Chile ayaa “howlgalkeedii soo celinta ee ugu horreeyay” dirtay September 1837, waa ciidan ay ku jireen saraakiil ka soo jeedday Peru, oo uu horkacayay Manuel Blanco Encalada oo Chile u dhashay.

Markii foodda la is daray, ciidamadii Santa Cruz ayaa is dhiibay waxayna ku qasbanaadeen inay heshiis nabadeed ku saxiixaan Paucarpata.

Si kastaba, Chile ayaa diidday heshiiskan.Peru

Sidaas darteed July 1838 ciidankii labaad ee ka socda Chile ayaa la diray, ayna ku jireen saraakiil Peru ka soo jeedday, uuna hoggaaminayo Manuel Bulnes.

Waxaa intaas dheer, “magaalooyin badan oo waqooyiga ku yaalla, ayaa bilaabay kacdoon,” sida uu sheegay Basadre.

Bilooyin kaddib markii ay joogeen ciidda Peru ayna isku ballaariyeen Lima, January 20, 1839, labada ciidan ayaa foodda isku daray dagaal ka dhacay Yungay, halkaas oo ciidankii Chile ka yimid ay guushu ku raacday.

Kaddib guusha, Chile ayaa ka baxday Peru. Santa Cruz ayaa aaday Lima kaddibna Arequipa. Wuxuu markii dambe ku dhintay Faransiiska sanadkii 1865.

Sanadkii 1839, wax yar kaddib waxaa meesha ka baxday kala qeybsanaantii gobollada waqooyiga iyo koofurta Peru waxaana burburtay dowladdii isu geynta labada dal

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